Teresa Andresen, Landscape architect and agronomist. She taught in higher education for 30 years. Since 2014 she does consulting in landscape planning and management, cultural landscapes and historical gardens conservation. Chairman of the Board of AJH – Portuguese Association of Historical Gardens since 2017.
Francisco Caldeira Cabral was the first Portuguese landscape architect having founded, in 1942, the Free Course in Landscape Architecture, at the Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA) of the Technical University of Lisbon. Caldeira Cabral graduated as an agronomist at ISA in 1936, after which he studied landscape architecture (1936-1939) at the Institut für Gartengestaltung of the Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerische Fakultät, Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, in Berlin.
In 1940, he was hired as an extraordinary professor at ISA for subjects in the agronomy course. Shortly afterwards, on an experimental basis, he started a course in landscape architecture, which was the basis of Free Course, created by decision of the ISA School Council on April 14, 1942. For his regency, Caldeira Cabral was hired in addition in 1945, as full professor. The Free Course lasted 39 years until the Landscape Architecture Degree was created in 1981.
The communication focuses on the training of Caldeira Cabral in Germany, on his teaching career and, in particular, on the functioning of the Free Course, on the creation, direction and activity of the Center for Landscape Architecture Studies (1953) and on his collaboration with different national and foreign institutions, namely his activity within IFLA, the International Federation of Landscape Architects, of which he was president between 1962 and 1966.
Teresa Portela Marques, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto; CIBIO – Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources. Teresa is landscape architect (Higher Institute of Agronomy, Lisbon, 1987) and Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto. Her main areas of research are the history and critique of designed landscapes, especially those created in the 19th century and first decades of the 20th century, as well as the conservation and restoration of gardens and landscapes of historic and cultural value.
Ana Catarina Antunes, Graduated in Landscape Architecture and, in 2019, completed her doctoral degree in Landscape Architecture and Urban Ecology at the University of Porto submitting a thesis titled ‘The German influence in the genesis of Landscape Architecture in Portugal’. In the period from 2017 to 2020 taught in higher education as invited assistant in the Master in Landscape Architecture at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto and was a member of the board of AJH – Portuguese Association of Historical Gardens. Since 2019, works in the field of landscape architecture consultancy, participating in the landscape master plan for the Campus of the University of Aveiro, among others.
Carl Steinitz is the Alexander and Victoria Wiley Professor of Landscape Architecture and Planning Emeritus at Harvard Graduate School of Design, and Honorary Professor at the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London. In 1965 he joined Harvard’s Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis. In 1984, he received the CELA Outstanding Educator Award for his “extraordinary contribution to environmental design education” and for his “pioneering exploration in the use of computer technology in landscape planning”, and the CELA Lifetime Achievement Award in 2022. Professor Steinitz is principal author of “Alternative Futures for Changing Landscapes” (2003), and author of “A Framework for Geodesign” (2012). He has lectured and taught workshops at more than 180 universities, and has several professional and international honors. He is a co-founder of the International Geodesign Collaboration.
I think there should and will be major changes in LA education and how teaching will increasingly be done. The drivers of change will be global in scale. Landscape architectural education has already changed several times in the past hundred +- years and as Cabral did for the University in Lisbon and these changes will come rapidly. The history of teaching will not guide these changes teaching will need to adapt to global changes. I will focus on what I and a few others are working on — to enable and make a design for the whole planet with local diversity, by globally coordinating global-to-local-to-global studies aimed to radically redirect the terrifying climate change forecasts and assessments.
James L. Wescoat Jr., Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Landscape Architecture and Geography, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
James Wescoat has taught classes in water and heritage conservation in South Asia and the U.S. He has co-published books on Mughal Gardens (1996), Water for Life (2003), and Political Economies of Landscape Change (2008), as well as recent journal articles and book chapters on water from the garden to river basin scale. His current research deals with rural drinking water in India, irrigation management in the Indus River basin of Pakistan, and comparative international water research. He earned a Bachelor of Landscape Architecture degree from Louisiana State University and graduate degrees in geography from the University of Chicago.
Water is a richly unifying phenomenon in landscape architectural education. This presentation takes as its starting point the theme of water heritage conservation in landscape architecture education at Louisiana State University – a program with interesting points of comparison to the University of Lisbon. Landscape architecture students in that deltaic environment develop a keen sense of dynamic water problems – erosion, subsidence, salinity, contamination, drainage, and floods of all sorts. But faculty also cultivate an openness to the poetics and socio-cultural meaning of water in that region – lessons that extend to very different landscapes from semi-arid canyonlands to waterfront cities. These vignettes set the stage for my experience teaching Water Heritage Conservation Workshops in the Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at MIT. The first examples focus on water-conserving design at “home,” the MIT campus, which is surrounded by water heritage from Olmsted’s Fenway to Henry David Thoreau’s Walden. Thoreau and Olmsted provide a bridge from Massachusetts to India where we conducted a decade of water heritage conservation workshops in the “world” beyond MIT — in collaboration with the Aga Khan Trust for Culture and Aga Khan Agency for Habitat. In one design workshop students developed restoration alternatives for a degraded urban stream near a World Heritage complex. In a rural workshop, students explored water conservation strategies for Ghar, Galli, and Gaon (home, lane, and village). The talk concludes with a fourfold framework for water heritage conservation in landscape architecture education.
Richard Stiles, Professor emeritus Vienna University of Technology.
Richard Stiles studied botany and landscape design at the universities of Oxford and Newcastle upon Tyne before working as a landscape architect in England and Germany. He joined Manchester University as Lecturer in Landscape Design, from where he was appointed Chair of Landscape Architecture at Vienna University of Technology, Austria, where he is now Professor Emeritus. He is a past president of ECLAS and led the LE:NOTRE European network project from 2002 to 2013.
Anniversaries are certainly grounds for celebrations – and in European landscape architecture we have had much to celebrate recently. But they are also an occasion for reflection on where we are now, and for looking ahead as well as looking back. But peering into the future should be done with some understanding of history, so where did we come from and where do we want to be going?
Before the first university landscape architecture programme professional qualification was often a case of apprenticeship to a practitioner, but there was not a particularly high demand for garden designers or landscape gardeners until municipal authorities began to replace the landed aristocracy as potential clients. There were a few schools for gardeners and horticulturalists, although these initially catered more for hobbyists than professionals.
It was largely pressure from those professional organisations that did exist that led to the establishment of the first university education programmes, but progress was slow for the first 50 years following the establishment of the first European programme in Norway.
Only with the phase of reconstruction in the decades after the Second World War and the environmental revolution which followed, did the number of landscape architecture programmes in Europe begin to grow significantly. The development of the discipline was accelerated by the general moves towards European integration and the creation of the ‘Single Market’. Cooperation and exchange which has been enabled by the European Union’s Erasmus Programmes has significantly helped to shape the discipline through the exchange of ideas and through support for the creation of a European academic community with sufficient critical mass. While it was primarily the needs of the profession that drove the initial establishment of landscape architecture programmes in Europe, the pressures of academia have since intervened to shape it since it became an academic discipline within the university system, and this is largely what has been the focus of celebrations across European universities in the last few years. But as we celebrate, so must we also reflect. Much has changed over the last 80 – 100 years: certainly the landscape, and not least our understanding of landscape, as is borne witness by the European Landscape Convention. How, though has our understanding of landscape architecture developed, and above all that of society in general? To what extent has the recognition of the profession kept pace with the developments in the academic sphere and what has this got to do with academia?
Lilli Lička, landscape architect, professor at ILA, Institute of Landscape Architecture, Department of Landscape, Spatial, and Infrastructure Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, BOKU, Vienna. Lilli Lička graduated from BOKU Vienna before examining urban green spaces in the Netherlands and collaborating with BplusB in Amsterdam and working on urban renewal in Vienna. She was head of koselička until 2016 and started as LL-L Landscape Architecture in 2017. Head of the Institute of Landscape Architecture at BOKU since 2003. Co-founder and co-operator of nextland: curated online collection and book publication on contemporary landscape architecture, (ILA/ÖGLA), LArchiv: Archive for Austrian Landscape Architecture. NELA: Network of European Landscape Architecture Archives. Design and research in public spaces, streets, parks, housing and corporate landscapes.
Landscape architects provides answers to current environmental and societal issues, made even more urgent by climate change. This may be the reason why the profession’s past is treated to a smaller degree and with less excitement than new solutions. Furthermore, there is an impermissible gap between landscape architecture history and design, which needs to be bridged right from the start – in education. Teaching with the confidence of a full-fledged discipline means conveying the whole story from the past to the present into the future. For this, the archives of landscape architecture are an indispensable tool. In the Network of European Landscape Architecture Archives, we find a means for exchange and mutual support to overcome these deficits. The contribution provides some flashlights over this international activity with a focus on the question of teaching.
Founder and CEO of PROAP. graduated in Landscape Architecture from Instituto Superior de Agronomia da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Master in Landscape Architecture from Escuela Tècnica Superior de Arquitectura de Barcellona, Universitá Politecnica di Catalunya. João Nunes teaches at the same Institute where he graduated, he is professor of Environmental Project at the Degree in Landscape, Urban and Environmental Planning from the “Universitá degli Studi di Sassari, Facoltà di Architectura di Alghero”, professor of Project at the Graduate Course of Architecture – Landscape Architecture at the IUAV, “Universitá di Venezia”, and extended his didactic activity as a lecturer in seminaries at various schools.
Cristina Castel-Branco received her degree in landscape architecture from the University of Lisbon. School of Agriculture. Under the auspices of a Fulbright–ITT grant, she received a Master of landscape architecture from the University of Massachusetts, and thereafter a doctorate focused on garden history. While a professor at the University of Lisbon, she has researched and published on subjects in landscape architecture history, and restoration, and ecological design. In addition to serving on several boards of cultural and governmental organizations including the Unesco-Icomos cultural landscapes she maintains an active professional practice in Lisbon; the ACB studio with prizes since 1990. She was granted the award of Officier des Arts et des Lettres from the French Government in 2015 and the Japanese Government Praise of Merit in 2020.
Considered a visionary in landscape architect ,Manuel Sousa da Câmara (1929-1992) had an instrumental role at the school of Agriculture, ISA, University of Lisbon (1977-1987) as he led the creation of an official five year degree in Landscape Architecture in 1981, in Portugal.
The transmission from his professional experience into teaching was innovative and gave priority to ecology into the art of building landscapes, parks and gardens, pioneering the digital world and applying it to Nature Based Solutions.
The technological jump of Sousa da Câmara introduced landscape architecture assisted by computers, programming for
Landscape Planning , both in his teaching and his private office;GPSC. This made him become the first Landscape Architect Software programmer in Porttugal during the ’80’s.
His relation to the best schools of North American Landscape Architecture teaching launched his research and teaching to the vanguard of the profession.
Paulo Farinha-Marques is an Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture at Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto, Portugal. He graduated in Landscape Architecture at University of Lisbon (1988) and got a PhD in Landscape Architecture at the Faculty of Architectural Studies of the University of Sheffield, UK (1999). Since then, he teaches and produces landscape architecture project at various scales. His main areas of interest are the planning and design of public outdoor spaces with special emphasis on urban green networks, green corridors, parks, gardens, green squares, green streets and designed woodlands. He aims at creating living spaces enabling close contact between humans and nature, in a context of high biodiversity, high aesthetic quality, social inclusiveness, and sustainable management. He teaches and publishes in landscape architecture design project, urban biodiversity and green structure; he practices creating and detailing landscape design projects, most of them implemented on site. He currently coordinates a special landscape, rich in designed outdoor spaces and cultivated biodiversity: the Botanical Garden of the University of Porto.
Since the introduction of Landscape Architecture into the Portuguese academic circuit in the early 1940s by Francisco Caldeira Cabral, teaching and learning in this area of knowledge has been structured by ecological concepts, in parity with equally innovative artistic and technical approaches.
This aspect is particularly relevant in the core subjects of the disciplinary area such as design, planning and management of the outdoor space and the whole landscape. In these, the guiding principles of the intervention adopt a systemic vision based on the understanding and implementation of the functioning and dynamics of the ecosystems. In this process, several main subjects are observed such as the biogeochemical cycles, food webs, energy and matter flows, the interdependence of organisms, ecological succession, biophysical connectivity (continuum naturale) and the heterogeneity and diversity of organisms, communities and habitats.
In this sense, the organization and design of outdoor space results in solutions that aim at the suitable location and integration of human activities in the present ecosystems, sensibly regarding its microclimate, landform, substrates, water resources and biological communities.
Notions such as “replacement ecosystem”, “minimised disorder”, viability and perpetuity of the intervened living spaces (sustainability), guide the intervention concepts, the overall design and detailing. Specifically, these notions are accomplished in proposals that embrace: 1) spatial models based on highly diverse landscapes, compatible with human use (ex. mosaic landscapes; clearing-edge-forest spatial model); 2) in-depth knowledge and handling of vegetation (vegetation functions; plant associations and formations; indigenous and non-invasive alien species; multi-stratified compositions; etc.); 3) the optimized and conservative use of natural resources (with special relevance to water, organic matter and biological values).
Knowledge of ecology and its application in the various fields of landscape architecture is therefore inseparable from the very mission of discipline, promoting its distinction and robustness in the academic and professional design context. It also challenges and extends its innovative character, fundamental for sustainable development and change in human societies.
Prof. Dr. Norbert Kühn, Studied landscape ecology and architecture at the Technical University of Munich-Weihenstephan, followed by a doctorate in vegetation ecology. Since 2003 head of the department of vegetation technology and planting design at the Technical University of Berlin. Member of national and international committees, advisory boards and foundations (such as ICB Muskau /Mużakowski and Branitz, Karl Foerster Foundation, Design Advisory Board Public Spaces Berlin). Main areas of work: Theory in planting design with special emphasis in perennial use, design of urban nature especially dealing with spontaneous vegetation, green space management, urban trees, green infrastructure and climate adaptation (infiltration swales, evaporation beds), plants in historic parks and gardens, plants and climate change.
The world is experiencing climate change. Severe weather, heat waves and droughts have also arrived in Europe. Landscape architecture has always been a mediator between the built environment and natural resources. Today, it is necessary to both reduce CO2 emissions and create storage options (mitigation), as well as develop ways to adapt (adaptation) so that we humans can continue to live in the changing environment in the future.
Basically, there are two ways to meet the new challenges: the technogenic and the ecosystem-based. The ecosystem-based path focuses on using ecosystem services, based on resilient systems. The term resilience describes the principle of a system’s return to the initial situation after unusual damaging events. Resilience to extreme weather situations requires a precautionary approach that begins in the design process, continues in construction, and must also entail a rethinking of previous management measures (maintenance). The ecological path leads inevitably to Nature Based Solutions (NBS), as they were urgently called for at the World Climate Conference in Glasgow 2021.
Plants are a central part of these Nature Based Solutions. There are numerous application areas (such as building greening, stormwater management, urban greening) in which they are used. Today, plant-based solutions should be a natural part of landscape architectural designs. However, it must also be taken into account that the plants themselves are suffering from climate change. Further effects of the Anthropocene, such as globalization, are also taking their toll on plants. Therefore, it is important to develop solutions that are oriented towards future climate conditions and the novel ecosystems that will be created as a result.
José Miguel Lameiras, Landscape Architect (PhD), an Assistant Professor in Landscape Architecture at the Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, and a researcher at BIOPOLIS/ CIBIO. His research focuses on urban regeneration and Nature based solutions, with a special focus on the use of digital technologies for landscape design and planning. He has been involved in the design of urban parks, with a special focus on creating green spaces that contribute to greater resilience to climate change in the city of Porto, such as the two Parks of the University Campus of Asprela, and Parque da Alameda de Cartes.
Landscape design is a fundamental activity of man’s action, as it shapes the earth, we live in. Any intervention in the outdoor space involves design decisions. The landscape design process has been aided by and is supported by technological developments. These cover all stages of the design process, from site analysis and design development to construction and maintenance. Most of these developments have occurred as a perfect synergy between academic research, design practice and computational developments.
This research presents 250 years of technological developments in landscape design representation. Starting from the paintings and eye level on-site design the 18th century, moving all the way through three-dimensional design, building information models, state of the art digital city twins and perspective advances within the use artificial intelligence in Landscape Architecture.
With a strong emphasis on Landscape Architecture education in Portugal, this research looks at the works of Manuel Sousa da Câmara, one of the pioneers. His design practice and teaching were at the forefront of digital development and implementation. Having been deeply influenced by the advanced works that were being developed at the time, such as the ones of Bruce MacDougall (University of Massachusetts Amherst).
Landscape Architecture Education and the professional practice face fast growing challenges in with the new technological possibilities. This presentation showcases current and future perspectives on collaborative design, virtual reality and augmented reality, information models and big data analysis, artificial intelligence.
Trained as Landscape Architect and Agronomist Engineer by the High Institute of Agronomy (ISA), she holds a Master in Urban and Regional Planning (University of Lisbon) and a PhD in Landscape Architecture (ISA, ULisboa). She has been teaching at Évora University, Institute of Agronomy, Technical Institute (IST) and Lisbon School of Architecture (FA/ULisboa), as an Associate Professor, between 1981 and 2013. Retired since 2013, she is full member of CIAUD, the Research Centre of Architecture, Urbanism and Design of the Lisbon University. Her research has focused in landscape planning, landscape perception and evaluation, river landscapes, landscape research applied to urban and rural development. She actually manages an agroforestry farm in central Portugal where she has developed a Landscape Observatory, as an association that aims to study and develop knowledge and practice on a landscape unit – Charneca -, joining research and community involvement.
Bruno Marques is a registered landscape architect and educator. He completed his Landscape Architecture studies at the University of Lisbon, School of Agronomy (Portugal) and Berlin Technical University (Germany) between 2002 and 2007, followed by his PhD studies at the University of Otago (New Zealand). Bruno has practised in Germany, Estonia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand, having an extensive portfolio of built projects. During the past nine years at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand, he has developed a comprehensive research agenda to embrace the formulation of frameworks on landscape rehabilitation, cultural landscapes, place-making and Indigenous community health and wellbeing. He currently is the Associate Dean for the Faculty of Architecture and Design Innovation and the immediate past Head of the Landscape Architecture Department. Professionally, he has been a long-standing contributor to the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) since 2008, being the current President for the period between 2022 to 2024.